Here are measures introduced across Europe to deal with coronavirus outbreaks
Measures to deal with coronavirus outbreaks are being introduced across Europe.
Many involve the reintroduction of restrictions that had been relaxed after the initial lockdowns.
France: Paris closes bars
All Parisian bars will close from October 6 for two weeks.
But restaurants and bars that serve food can stay open until 22 p.m. However, they will have to put in place new sanitary measures and record the contact details of customers.
The capital's university lecture halls should not be more than half full and working from home should be a priority.
Last week, bars and restaurants in 11 cities, including Paris, were ordered to close at 22 p.m. In Marseille, they were completely closed for 00 days.
Throughout France, gatherings are limited to 10 people, and wedding receptions, student parties and other gatherings held in rented places are prohibited.
Face masks are mandatory in enclosed public spaces across France, while specific areas have introduced additional rules.
In Paris and its surroundings, the masks must be brought to the outdoors by anyone aged 11 and over. Hundreds of other municipalities across France have the same rule, including Toulouse, Nice, Lille and Lyon.
Masks should also be worn in most workplaces.
Spain: Madrid lockdown
Nearly five million people have been affected by a new lockdown in the capital and nine surrounding towns.
People can only leave their area to go to work, school or for medical care. Indoor and outdoor social gatherings are limited to six people. Bars and restaurants must close at 22:00. Along with the stores, they have reduced the number of customers entering at all times.
The measures were imposed by Spain's central government and resisted by local authorities in Madrid.
Masks must be worn by anyone over the age of six on all public transportation and in indoor public spaces.
Most parts of Spain have made masks mandatory outdoors as well.
Netherlands: restrictions in major cities
Dutch authorities introduced new measures from September 29, after the number of daily infections reached its highest level since the start of the pandemic.
Masks must be worn in stores in major cities and restaurants and bars must close at 22 p.m. nationwide.
Businesses are required to register customer details and working from home is encouraged. Social gatherings inside homes should not exceed three people. There cannot be spectators at sporting events.
The measures will remain in place for at least three weeks.
Previous measures, such as wearing masks on public transport, will also continue to apply. Local authorities can implement their own additional measures.
Germany: new rules for people arriving from high-risk countries
The ban on large gatherings in Germany - such as public festivals, spectator sporting events and concerts - has been extended until the end of the year. The new Bundesliga football season takes place behind closed doors.
Testing at airports is mandatory for people arriving from high-risk countries. But from October 1, these travelers had to self-isolate for 14 days .
People who do not wear a face covering in shops or on public transport can face a minimum fine of 50 euros (£ 46).
German authorities have agreed to introduce new measures in regions with high infection rates. Public gatherings will be limited to 50 people and private to 25. People who do not leave correct ID information in restaurants and bars will be fined.
Italy: nightclubs closed
All dance halls and discos have been closed.
Masks should also be worn from 18:00 p.m. to 06:00 a.m. in all public areas where social distancing is not possible.
In schools, face masks are mandatory for all children over the age of six when moving around the school building.
Denmark: bars must close early
Denmark was one of the first countries in Europe to reopen schools in April.
However, at the end of August, the number of cases started to increase sharply.
The government responded by making face masks mandatory on public transport.
In and around Copenhagen - which has peaked in cases - bars, restaurants and nightclubs are now due to close at 22 p.m.
Private parties and gatherings such as weddings should end at the same time and masks should be worn in restaurants, bars and cafes.
Belgium: return of football fans
In the Belgian capital, Brussels, wearing a face mask will no longer be compulsory in all public spaces, from 1 October.
However, face coverings will always be “highly recommended” in places where a distance of 1,5m cannot be guaranteed.
However, other new measures have been introduced in Brussels: cafes and bars must close at 23:00 p.m. and other businesses selling food and drinks before 22:00 p.m. Eating in street markets is prohibited.
Nightclubs remain closed and no major events, such as festivals, are allowed.
Football fans are allowed to return to stadiums, but only at a fraction of their capacity and they must wear masks.
Portugal: small gatherings
As students return to school and some workers return to their desks, new restrictions have been put in place as of September 15.
These include closing commercial establishments before 23:00 p.m. and limiting gatherings to a maximum of 10 people.
Greece: new measures in Athens
Masks are now mandatory in all indoor public spaces and on all public transport in Greece.
In September, stricter restrictions came into effect in the Attica region, which includes Athens: masks must be worn at work and in all crowded outdoor locations.
Other local restrictions were also introduced on some Greek islands and free on-site tests were offered to people arriving on the mainland from those particular islands.
Republic of Ireland: no indoor dining in Dublin
In the capital Dublin, indoor restaurants were banned on September 19 for three weeks and all non-essential travel discouraged, after a surge in recent cases.
Social home visits in Ireland, both indoors and outdoors, are limited to six visitors from a maximum of three households.
Outdoor gatherings are limited to 15 people.
People over the age of 70 are again encouraged to stay home as much as possible and people are encouraged to work from home if possible.
There have also been a number of local lockdowns.
Sweden: no lockdown is imposed
There was no lockdown in Sweden but, in accordance with government advice, most people respected voluntary social distancing and started working from home when possible.
The country has banned gatherings of more than 50 people and urged people over 70 to self-isolate - but shops, bars, restaurants and gyms remained open.
The number of new infections is increasing again, but not as strongly as in some other parts of Europe.
Authorities have not ruled out future restrictions, but businesses remain open for now and masks are not recommended.
This article appeared first on: https://www.bbc.com/news/explainers-53640249